We collected almost all possible data about gemstones such as rubies sapphires emeralds and other rare gemstones and how they are mined cut facetted and polished in a fascinating technological chain or often just the old way. More info on gemstone colors and shopping of the stones.

Most are of an inorganic material with a particular chemical composition and an internal crystal structure. A few of them such as pearls and amber are from plants and animals origin they are known as organic gems.

Other gemstones such as Lapiz Lazuli Turquoise and azurite plus copper-rich stones blend with water. Malachite, emeralds and tourmaline are made when water get in touch with magma and then crystallize. Spaces are broken up, are filled with veins of other minerals and form hydro-thermal deposits.

In the last hundred years, artificial stones were created in labs which are physically the same as the natural ones, often even better because of much clearer but people like it made by mother nature. Normally all minerals are originated from natural processes without any direct activity or interference of man.
With modern technology today physical and chemical properties similar to mineral are made but because it is man-made it cannot be called natural.

Nowadays however, synthetic stones are produced commercially on a large scale for use in industry and jewelry but these are not classified with naturally Many minerals are found in association with each other and it is very likely that some of them originated side by side in the same or very similar environmental conditions. Such a mineral assemblage is called a paragenesis (from the Greek pare = alongside and genesis = origin).

Precious Minerals

Certain minerals always occur in specific associations and experienced geologists and collectors know what minerals to expect in a particular geological formation and what minerals will be missing.

For mineral formation the right chemical elements have to be present at the right time; the process is also affected by factors such as time, pressure and temperature. Pressure and temperature can usually be simulated in the laboratory, but not time, although it can sometimes be compensated for by higher temperatures or pressures, or by some auxiliary factor such as water, gas or a catalyst introduced into the process.
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Having a hardness higher than quartz?

Gemstone Photos
Minerals also separate from hot-water springs and they form in the bottom muds of lakes and in mines and quarries. Mineralogists also gain useful information about mineral formation by studying the products of metallurgical and glass-making processes and chemical compounds synthesized in the laboratory. If a mineral is formed in association with certain other minerals during, say, a volcanic process, we can then reason that the minerals originated in the same or similar conditions in the geological past. Some minerals have retained their appearance since the time they were first formed. A larger group of minerals, secondary minerals, formed on the Earth's surface as the result of the transformation of the primary species.

Minerals that develop deep in the Earth's crust in conditions of high pressure and temperature may be poorly suited for the conditions that prevail on the surface. So when such minerals are brought to the surface by geological processes and exposed to the effects of the atmosphere plus water and aqueous solutions, they are gradually changed into other minerals that can withstand the surface conditions better. For example, limonite (iron hydroxide) is the rusty-colored weathering product of iron-containing minerals such as pyrite, and the green malachite and blue azurite are formed in zones of weathering or oxidation in copper ore deposits. Secondary minerals usually contain the water molecule H2O, hydrated compounds or the hydroxyl ion OH hydrous compounds. Other minerals that are resistant to weathering at the Earth's surface may be eroded out of existing rocks and deposited in sediments.

Natural minerals contain traces of other (foreign) elements

This are inclusions or liquids and gases or ingrowths of crystals of other minerals. This inhomogeneity changes the mineral's chemical composition and to a certain extent affect some of its physical properties, such as specific gravity, hardness, color, and transparency. The foreign inclusions may, however, help to distinguish a natural stone from an imitation or a synthetic product, and because some inclusions are characteristic of certain geological conditions, they may also help to determine the origin and locality of the mineral, a generalized chemical fontina is usually given to each mineral compound.

Sometimes one element in the compound is replaced by another element with the same parameter and of similar size without changing the external crystal form of the mineral. This is called isomorphism. For example, in the olivine group the forsterite molecule Mg.2[SiO4] is replaced by the fayalite molecule Fe2[SiO4]; and in the garnet group pyrope molecule Mg3.Al2[SiO4]:, is replaced by the almandine molecule Fe3Al2[SiO4], Isomorphism is also common in such mineral groups are tourmalines, plagioclase feldspars, and pyroxenes. The characteristic isomorphism explains the range in composition and variation in properties in these mineral groups.
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How stones became gems

Photos of precious gems
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  3. Precious Sapphire Stones
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Organic and Inorganic gemstones
Gem Photos
  1. organic amber gemstone jewelry
  2. organic amber bracelets
  3. inorganic gemstones
  4. inorganic jade gemstone beads

Colorful Semi-Precious Stones

More Gemstone Photos
Some other semi-precious stones such as turquoise and azurite
copper-rich stones blend with water.

Malachite emeralds and tourmaline are made when water get in touch with magma and then crystallize. Spaces are broken up, are filled with veins of other minerals and form hydrothermal deposits.

In the last hundred years artificial stones were created in labs which are physically the same as the natural ones. Often even better because of much clearer but people like it made by mother nature such as this sapphires.
  1. semi-precious stones
  2. Golden south sea pearls
  3. Sapphires with many colors
  4. creative turquoise jewelry
  5. Ruby Crystals
  6. colorful sapphires
  7. watermelon tourmaline
  8. beautiful semi-precious stones
Synthetic gemstones have similar physical properties as the natural ones actually most are even better and much cheaper as the real ones often substituted in jewelry.

They also don't have all the natural inclusions genuine gems have and this is also the reason why they can easily be identified as fake, although they are not in physical terms but in value.

colorful gemstones

Gemstone Cabochons

Precious Stones Photos
For a fascinating shine and colorful gemstones they must be cut faceted and polished to show their natural beauty after jewelry will be made from.

Garnets are typical they easily match other colors and because of their physical properties they are also used as abrasive for other stones.

Cabochons, bead & balls, in this website we present information about them and other cabochons with a strong visual focus and show where they are mined and manufactured into beautiful ornaments set in gold, platinum, and silver.

  1. Ruby Cabochons (1)
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About green gemstones

Synthetic gemstones
Synthetic gemstones photos